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Anxiety Treatment for Better Tomorrow – Part 2

At the outset, I would like to thank everyone who had gone through my earlier article and posted their valuable comments. In view of this huge response I was encouraged to post the second part of Anxiety Treatment for Better Tomorrow.

In part-1, I dealt mainly with the introduction for stress and anxiety and the existing Conventional treatment methods (drug and non-drug) in medical field. But unfortunately as most of us are aware of the fact that these methods have lot of limitations, which is mainly because of the ‘symptomatic’ approach to the anxiety problem.

Limitations of existing conventional treatments:

1) With Medicines:

  • Only Symptomatic Relief
  • Effective as long as on medication
  • Dependence &Side-effects on long term use

2) Without Medicines (counseling, psychotherapy, de-sensitization, other alternative methods)

  • Not effective as a therapeutic method.
  • Improvement is totally based on self-effort or practice and motivation.

Hence there is a dire need for a therapy which should be“scientific”, “medicine-free”, “without self-effort”, “treats the root-cause”& delivers “permanent cure”.

Is there any therapy which fulfills all there criteria???

Yes there is, regarding which we will discuss in my next post….

Fears can be easily overcome but not Phobias – Why?

Fear and Phobia are qualitatively very different problems hence a distinction between them is useful.

1) A fear is a normal emotional response to a real or perceived threat that everyone experiences.

Eg: If someone points a gun at you, it is logical to feel fear. In contrast Phobia is a fear response to some stimulus that is illogical, Irrational & unreasonable and not based on a real threat.

2) Fear in fact is one of our defence mechanisms. There are some things we should fear, so that we can flee or avoid the situation whereas Phobia is counter-productive & interferes with not only one’s ability to perform but also their quality of life.

3)  The difference between a fear and phobia is not just the acuteness of it; it is also that a phobia is blown out of proportion in the person’s mind.when someone has a real phobia, they spend an inordinate amount of time or make an unnecessarily large effort to avoid the thing they fear.

Eg; People, who have a spider phobia often spend considerable time worrying about spiders, spend an inordinate amount of time ensuring they do not come in contact with a spider, and will avoid places and activities in order to avoid spiders.

4) Fear can be easily  overcome . Phobias cannot be easily overcome unless through effective Phobia treatment.

Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD)

Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD)

Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is the most common anxiety disorder and one of the most common psychiatric disorders. It is characterized by an intense fear of being judged by others and humiliated in social situations thereby causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in daily life. These fears can be triggered by perceived or actual scrutiny from others.

Physical symptoms often accompanying social anxiety disorder include excessive blushing, excess sweating, trembling, palpitations and nausea. Stammering may be present, along with rapid speech. This fear can be so strong that it interferes with daily life activities like going to work or school. If left untreated, some sufferers use alcohol, food, or drugs to reduce the fear at social events, which often leads to other disorders such as alcoholism, eating disorders, and depression. Panic attacks can also occur under intense fear and discomfort.

Standardized rating scales such as the Social Phobia Inventory, the SPAI-B and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale can be used to screen for social anxiety disorder and measure the severity of anxiety.

Treatment:

The first line in Anxiety Disorder Therapy is cognitive behavioral therapy with medications recommended only in those who are not interested in therapy. Cognitive behavioral therapy is effective in treating social phobia, whether delivered individually or in a group setting. The cognitive and behavioral components seek to change thought patterns and physical reactions to anxiety-inducing situations.

Prescribed medications include severalclassesof antidepressants: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Other commonly used medications include beta blockers and benzodiazepines.

 

Brain Imaging Predicts Psychotherapy Success in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder

Treatment for social anxiety disorder or social phobia has entered the personalized medicine arena—brain imaging can provide neuromarkers to predict whether traditional options such as cognitive behavioral therapy will work for a particular patient, reported a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded study that was published in the January 2013 issue of JAMA Psychiatry

 

anxiety

Background

Social anxiety disorder (SAD)— the fear— is the third most prevalent psychiatric disorder in Americans, after depression and alcohol dependence, according to the National Comorbidity Survey, a U.S. poll on mental health.The NIMH claims that 6.8 percent of U.S. adults and 5.5 percent of 13- to 15-year-olds, the age of onset for this chronic disorder, are annually afflicted.

Although psychotherapy and drugs, such as antidepressants and benzodiazepines, exist as treatments for SAD, current behavioral measures poorly predict which would work better for individual patients. “Half of social anxiety disorder patients have satisfactory response to treatment. There is little evidence about which patient would benefit from a particular form of treatment,” said John D. Gabrieli, Ph.D., lead author of the study. “Currently, there is no rational basis for prescribing one treatment over the other. Which treatment a patient gets depends on whom they see.”

Enter personalized medicine, the use of genetic or other biological markers to tailor treatments to those who would actually benefit from them, thus sparing the expense and side effects for those who would not. Brain imaging could identify neuromarkers or targeted areas of the brain that could one day optimize treatment for individual patients. Neuromarkers are being used in other areas of mental illness, for instance, to predict the onset of psychosis in schizophrenia and the likelihood of relapse in drug addiction.

In this study, Gabrieli, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, and his colleagues, used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 39 SAD patients before a 12-week course of cognitive behavioral therapy. The patients viewed angry versus neutral faces and scenes while undergoing fMRI examination (see first slide). Compared to neutral faces, angry faces convey disapproval and are likely to prompt excessive fear responses and negative connotations in SAD patients; cognitive behavioral therapy teaches these patients ways to downregulate their responses. The patients’ brain images were then compared to their scores on a conventional clinical measure, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), a questionnaire which they took before and after therapy completion.

Results of the Study

SAD patients responded more to the images of faces and not scenes, which is characteristic for the social basis of this disorder. Patients whose brains reacted strongly to the facial images before treatment benefitted more from the therapy than those who reacted to these the least (see second slide). Specifically, changes in two occipitotemporal brain regions—areas involved in early processing of visual cues such as faces—correlated with positive cognitive behavioral therapy outcome. These neuromarkers predicted treatment outcome better than the currently used LSAS.

Significance

This study is the first of its kind to use neuroimaging to predict treatment response in SAD patients. Neuromarkers may become a practical clinical tool to guide the selection of optimal treatments for individual patients. Integration of neuromarkers with genetic, behavioral, and other biomarkers is likely to further refine the prediction

Conclusion:

A larger study comparing people with SAD with normal participants is needed to verify the results. fMRI studies using other facial expressions (disgust or fear) might be better predictors. Studies that look at other Other Therapies like Dr S V Prasad’s Phobias Treatment in Hyderabad and drugs are also needed to confirm which treatment is optimal.

 

 

 

Introduction to Psychology, Science of the Human Mind, Behavior and Its Functions

What is psychology? What are the branches of psychology?

Psychology is the science of the mind and behavior. The word “psychology” comes from the Greek word psyche meaning “breath, spirit, soul”, and the Greek word loggia meaning the study of something.

According to Medilexicon’s medical dictionary, psychology is “The profession (clinical psychology), scholarly discipline (academic psychology), and science (research psychology) concerned with the behavior of humans and animals, and related mental and physiologic processes.” Although psychology may also include the study of the mind and behavior of animals, in this article psychology refers to humans.

Certain situations that an individual faces are challenging and they lead to change of behavior patterns and emotions because of Psychology problems. This is a common problem in the current world and we can be the culprits or our friends and family members can be affected.

Fast facts on psychology

Here are some key points about psychology:

  • Psychology is the study of behavior and the mind.
  • We are unable to physically see mental processes such as thoughts, memories, dreams and perceptions.
  • Clinical psychology is an integration science, theory, and practice.
  • Cognitive psychology investigates internal mental processes such as how people think, perceive and communicate.
  • Developmental psychology is the study of how a person develops psychologically over the course of their life.
  • Evolutionary psychology examines how psychological adjustments during evolution have affected human behavior.
  • Forensic psychology is the application of psychology to the process of criminal investigation and the law.
  • Health psychology observes how health can be influenced by behavior, biology and social context.
  • Neuropsychology examines the how the brain functions in relation to different behaviors and psychological processes.
  • Occupational psychology investigates how people perform at work in order to develop an understanding of how organizations function.
  • Social psychology is a study of how the behavior and thoughts of people are influenced by the actual or implied presence of others.

 The different branches of psychology

  1. Clinical psychology
  2. Cognitive psychology
  3. Developmental psychology
  4. Evolutionary psychology
  5. Forensic psychology
  6. Health psychology
  7. Neuropsychology
  8. Social psychology

Psychologist doctors, Best Psychologist in Hyderabad, Famous Psychologist in Hyderabad is available at Dr S V Prasad Manovikas Center

 

Live-in relationships as good as marriage for your emotional health problems

Taking the leap from courting to living together reduces emotional distress

When it comes to emotional problems, young couples — especially women — do just as well moving in together as they do getting married, says a study.

The findings suggest an evolving role of marriage among young people today, said co-author of the study Sara Mernitz from The Ohio State University in the US.

As recently as the early 1990s, young people still received emotional health benefits when they went from living together to getting married, Mernitz said.

“Now it appears that young people, especially women, get the same emotional boost from moving in together as they do from going directly to marriage,” she said.

“There is no additional boost from getting married,” Mernitz explained.

Another significant finding was that the emotional benefits of cohabitation or marriage aren’t limited to first relationships. The study found that young adults experienced a drop in emotional distress when they moved from a first relationship into cohabitation or marriage with a second partner.

“The young people in our study may be selecting better partners for themselves the second time around, which is why they are seeing a drop in emotional distress,” study co-author Claire Kamp Dush, professor at Ohio State University said.

The researchers used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. This study included 8,700 people who were born between 1980 and 1984 and were interviewed every other year from 2000 to 2010.

The study did find some gender differences, at least for first unions of marriage or cohabitation.

For those entering a first union, men experienced a decrease in emotional distress only if they went directly into marriage. There was no change in distress for men who cohabited with a female partner.

That may be because men are more likely than women to report cohabiting as a way to test a relationship, which has been linked in other research to subsequent relationship problems, the study said.

Emotional Relief Center in Hyderabad, Therapy and Counseling for Emotional Problems, Consultation for Emotional Problems is available at Dr S V Prasad Manovikas Center

A well-known technology solution to Psychologist & Psychiatrist Services, improving safety and quality of care

For one, we need to make technology our friend. Doctors and patients may be averse to the introduction of technology, but that is generally when it distances providers from their patients or seems to produce more work. Examples of advances that have been met with concern include burdensome electronic medical records and other online paperwork that require typing instead of talking during visits. In addition, privacy concerns are ever-present, with too many instances of security breaches, often from human error, not hacking. But these are solvable problems that must be overcome since the alternative is delayed or no care.

A well-known technology solution to improving safety and quality of care is telemedicine, or telepsychiatry for mental health. A psychiatrist, say in Minneapolis, Washington or New York City connects via a secure channel to a remote clinic, hospital or prison and, in live-time, consults on or actually delivers care to a patient (sometimes family as well), thereby assisting local clinicians. While this bridges misdistribution gaps, it does not increase the actual total supply of doctors. It is invaluable, nevertheless, in helping to remedy geographic disparities.

In addition, many patients can be served by brief email, text or Skype interactions. This communication is not only convenient but also a way for patients to receive immediate and interactive medical attention and avoid treatment, rather than wait weeks to spend half a day in the waiting room of a doctor’s office for an eight-minute visit. Financial support for these forms of care has yet to catch up with its needed provision, which calls for prompt policy changes. Today this kind of change is happening in long distance Psychologist & Psychiatrist Services

What is emerging, and it can’t come soon enough, are a set of capabilities delivered by smart phones and wearable devices. Of course, these are no substitute for the human touch. But once a treatment plan is in place these can provide prompts to follow medical and wellness care as well as monitor a variety of information, including vital signs, sleep and physical activity patterns and phone and purchasing behaviors – all of which can signal the risk of relapse and alert clients and caregivers if an intervention is needed. The predictive analytic precision that is being developed is remarkable and beyond any form of monitoring we have had to date. Medical visits may thus be driven by data, not just rote scheduling, thereby also maximizing limited resources.

Psychiatrists, as well, will need to be redistributed from their high concentrations in large urban to more rural and underserved areas. Some actual, literal movement away from cities may happen with more training programs located in cities centered in rural areas as well as by financial incentives (described above) that are tied to where doctors work, not where they reside.

Complex, enduring problems such as these outlined here call for innovative solutions, and often more than one employed at a time to have impact. Tinkering doesn’t cut it. More of the same old meets (what I prefer to consider) Einstein’s definition of foolhardiness. The variety of very plausible solutions offered here will require significant policy and practice changes as well as investment of capital and people. If solving the psychiatrist workforce shortage was easy or inexpensive. we would have fixed the problem long ago.

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Depression Counseling, Depression Relief and Psychological signs and symptoms

I’ve enjoyed writing this Write out of Depression blog. It introduced me to many of you fascinating readers. It saw me through the writing and publishing of my book, writing through the Darkness: Easing Your Depression with Paper and Pen. And I hope it has provided some information, encouragement and intriguing writing ideas.

Depression is rampant in today’s society, almost everyone is on, or knows someone who is on antidepressants, but these medications only treat the symptoms of depression – not necessarily the causes.

Depression Counseling, Depression Relief Centers are playing major role for patients to get treatment and Alternative Therapy

How to overcome depression forever

When you want to know how to deal with depression you’ll find that there are lots of alternative treatments. They are things you can do, and remedies you can take. You can overcome depression – beating it forever – with or without the help of a therapist or doctor.

I’m so glad you’re searching for information on how to Overcome Depression – a sure sign that you will recover sooner rather than later! And you know what? You’re much less likely to suffer a relapse further down the line if you take control!

Psychological signs and symptoms:

  • Persistent sadness or low mood
  • Thoughts and feelings of worthlessness
  • Feelings of self hatred
  • A feeling of hopelessness
  • A feeling of helplessness
  • Feeling like crying
  • A feeling of guilt
  • Irritability – even trivial things become annoying
  • Angry outbursts
  • Intolerance towards others
  • Persistent doubting – finding it very hard to decide on things
  • Finding it impossible to enjoy life
  • Thoughts of self harm
  • Thoughts of suicide
  • Persistent worry

Depression: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

Sadness, feeling down, having a loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities – these are symptoms of depression familiar to all of us.

Depression is a mental health disorder, a psychiatric condition. Specifically, it is a mood disorder characterized by persistently low mood in which there is a feeling of sadness and loss of interest.

Depression is known by different medical terms, some of which signify a particular diagnosis:

Depression can affect appetite.
  • Clinical depression
  • Major depression
  • Major depressive disorder
  • Persistent depressive disorder
  • Dysthymia
  • Dysphoric disorder.

Depression is a persistent problem, not a passing one – the average length of a depressive episode is 6 to 8 months.

Depression is different from the fluctuations in mood that we all experience as a part of a normal and healthy life. Temporary emotional responses to the challenges of everyday life do not constitute depression.

Likewise, even the feeling of grief resulting from the death of someone close or other kind of loss is not itself depression if it does not persist.5 Depression can, however, be related to bereavement – when depression follows a loss, psychologists call it a “complicated bereavement.

Similarly, discouraged mood that results from the disappointment of a life event such as a financial problem, a serious illness, or even involvement in a natural disaster, does not necessarily mean depression.

Unipolar versus bipolar depression

A separate condition may be diagnosed if it is characterized by both manic and depressive episodes separated by periods of normal mood, in which case the mood disorder is not depression but bipolar disorder, which used to be known as manic depression or manic-depressive illness.

Unipolar or major depressive disorder is estimated to be 3.5 times more prevalent than bipolar spectrum disorders.

Unipolar depression may be described as mild, moderate, or severe, and can involve anxiety and other symptoms – but no manic episodes. However, nearly 40% of the time over a 13-year period, individuals with bipolar disorder are depressed, making the two conditions difficult, and important, to distinguish.

Psychotic depression

Depression brought on by the birth of a baby is a separate diagnosis.

This diagnosis is characterized by depression accompanied by psychosis.

Psychosis can involve delusions – false beliefs and detachment from reality – or hallucinations – sensing things that do not exist.

Postpartum depression

Women often experience the “baby blues” with a newborn, but postpartum depression – also known as postnatal depression – is more severe and estimated to affect about 1 in 10 women who have given birth.

Seasonal effective disorder

Often abbreviated to SAD, seasonal effective disorder is related to the reduced daylight of winter – the depression occurs during this season but lifts for the rest of the year and in response to light therapy.

Countries with long or severe winters seem to be affected more by SAD.

Causes of depression

The causes of depression are not fully understood and may not be down to a single source. Depression is likely to be caused by a complex combination of factors:3,5,6,9

  • Genetic
  • Biological – with changes in noradrenergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmitter levels theorized
  • Environmental
  • Psychological and social/psychosocial.

Some people are at higher risk of depression than others – risk factors, which play into the above causes, include:

  • Life events – for example, unemployment, divorce, poverty, although these events lead to lasting, severe depression usually only in people predisposed to it
  • Personality. Failure of adaptive mechanisms/coping strategies to stressors
  • Genetic factors. First-degree relatives of depressed patients are themselves at higher risk, and occurrence of depression between identical twins is high. Genetic factors may influence individual responses to events that trigger depression
  • Childhood trauma can cause long-term brain changes affecting responses to fear and stress. Other history also raises the risk, including a suicide attempt, or any form of abuse – sexual, physical or substance
  • Some prescription drugs – including corticosteroids, some beta-blockers, interferon, and reserpine – can lead to depression.
  • Abuse of recreational drugs – including alcohol, amphetamines – can accompany depression or result in it. There is a high level of comorbidity between drug abuse and depression
  • A past head injury
  • Past diagnosis of depression – people who have had an episode of major depression are at higher risk of a subsequent one
  • Chronic pain syndromes in particular, but also other chronic conditions, such as diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease.

Symptoms of depression

The criteria used to make a diagnosis of depression are based on the symptoms that are present, so the list of possible symptoms is similar:3,5,10

  • Depressed mood – feeling sad or low
  • Reduced interest or pleasure in activities previously enjoyed, loss of sexual desire
  • Unintentional weight loss (without dieting) or low appetite
  • Insomnia (difficulty sleeping) or hypersomnia (excessive sleeping)
  • Psychomotor agitation (for example, restlessness, pacing up and down), or psychomotor retardation (slowed movements and speech)
  • Fatigue or loss of energy
  • Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
  • Worsened ability to think, concentrate or make decisions
  • Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide, or attempt at suicide.

Signs are the features that may be noticed by the doctor and others – as opposed to the symptoms that patients can describe themselves. Signs of a person with depression include:5

  • Appearing miserable, tearful eyes, furrowed brows, down-turned corners of the mouth
  • Slumped posture, lack of eye contact and facial expression
  • Little body movement, and speech changes (for example, soft voice, use of monosyllabic words)
  • Gloomy, pessimistic, humorless, passive, lethargic, introverted, hypercritical of self and others, complaining.

New Research into Anxiety Disorders

Nearly one in five Americans have been diagnosed with some form of anxiety disorder. These range from panic attacks and post-traumatic stress disorder to social phobias and obsessive-compulsive disorders.

Anti-anxiety drugs or antidepressants can curb symptoms that interfere with day-to-day life. And these drugs are big business. In 2013, Americans filled 48 million prescriptions for the benzodiazepine drug alprazolam (Xanax). Patients also picked up 27 million prescriptions for sertraline (Zoloft), an antidepressant drug that also helps some people with anxiety.

Yet, while many people do find relief in these drugs, they don’t work for everyone. Benzodiazepines can interfere with normal thinking and induce drowsiness. They also can be highly addictive, so doctors are reluctant to prescribe them for people with a history of substance abuse. Zoloft and other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) also don’t work for everyone. They can cause nausea, jitters, insomnia, suicidal thoughts, and loss of libido.

However, researchers are teasing out another option for reducing anxiety. When stress kicks in, so would this experimental drug.

“By targeting specific enzymes,” said neuroscientist J. Megan Gray, “we can minimize side effects.”

Researchers from Calgary to Southern California are investigating the inner struggle between one brain chemical that keeps stress in check and another that is part of the body’s fight or flight response. Many of these investigators talked about their latest findings during the November 2014 Society for Neuroscience conference in Washington, D.C.

The brains of humans and some animals naturally synthesize endocannabinoids, molecules that help regulate functions including appetite, mood and response to stress. An ample supply of endocannabinoids keeps anxiety under control, and this is the function that Gray and her colleagues at the Hotchkiss Brain Institute at the University of Calgary want to boost.

When something stressful happens — a deadline approaches or travel plans go awry — the fight or flight response floods the brain with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). It degrades endocannabinoids and turns anxiety on. That’s like releasing the parking brake when a car is parked on a hill. The new drug would boost the level of endocannabinoids in the brain, creating a buffer against CRH’s action.

Endocannabinoids and the active compounds in marijuana both bind to the same brain receptors, which is why some people self-medicate by smoking marijuana.

“Often, if you go to a medical marijuana place and tell them you have anxiety, they’ll give you marijuana,” said James Lim, a neuroscientist at the University of California-Irvine. The problem is that cannabis also contains many other chemicals, including harmful tars, that complicate the reaction. If researchers can design an endocannabinoid-boosting compound that is simpler, said Gray, “we can better understand what people are exposing themselves to.”

Previously, researchers assumed that the stress “parking brake” system acted the same in everyone. But new research during the November conference points to a different model — that some people’s brains synthesize more endocannabinoids than others, and that people with higher levels can handle more stress.

Researchers have long known that some people can take more metaphorical heat than others. “Some kids can undergo a lot of traumatic events in early life and turn out just fine,” said University of Michigan researcher Pam Maras. “Some undergo relatively minor things and turn out to have severe anxiety and depression.”

Numerous researcher teams are using rat models to try to understand how stress responses can be manipulated, and they reported their findings at the conference.

In separate experiments, Gray and Lim tinkered with endocannabinoid levels in rats. Both found that rats with higher levels acted less anxious after being exposed to stress. Lim made part of a maze scary by tainting it with the scent of a fox’s feces. Rats with more stress-braking power would explore the tainted regions of the maze. More timid rats avoided it for as long as seven days after the scent was laid down.

Two other research groups, working independently in Ohio and Colorado, manipulated CRH levels in different ways but arrived at complementary results.

At Kent State University, neuroscientist Lee Gilman blocked CRH receptors in mice, shutting out the stress-inducing peptide and enabling them to approach other, unfamiliar mice.

At the University of Colorado-Boulder, Christopher Lowery is interested in how the brain responds to repeated social defeat. For example, what happens when a child is repeatedly bullied? He mimicked this by putting a male rat into the home cage of another male rat, where the newcomer would be forced to surrender to the more dominant native. In his study, rats that faced social defeat over and over produced more CRH each time, and were more quickly immobilized by fear during later encounters.

However, as Lim and Gilman both observed, some animals can put the brake on anxiety longer than others. Clinicians know this is true for humans; what the laboratory scientists are probing is when and how those differences manifest in the brain.

Michigan researcher Pam Maras sees evidence that these differences begin early in development. Her more nervous rats began displaying excessive anxiety as early as 11 days after birth, which corresponds to the fifth week of life for an infant. Animals that did not manifest anxiety at that point grew up to be more resilient to stress, though Maras can’t say why.

“We don’t have an answer for that right now,” said Maras. “It’s exciting sometimes when you don’t have an answer, because that means that there’s more to do.”

Some people are probably born more vulnerable to anxiety disorders than others. And although they might benefit greatly from a medication that puts a brake on runaway anxiety, scientists have a lot to learn before such a drug will be ready for clinical use.

References

Ammerman, S. Marijuana. Adolesc Med State Art Rev. 2014 Apr;25(1):70-88.

J. Megan Gray, PhD, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary.

Christopher Lowery, PhD, University of Colorado, Boulder.

Bayer, S.A., Altman, J., Russo, R.J. et al. Timetables of Neurogenesis in the Human Brain Based on Experimentally Determined Patterns in the Rat.NeuroToxicology 1993 14(1): 83-144.

Kedzior, K.K. and Laeber, L.T. A positive association between anxiety disorders and cannabis use or cannabis use disorders in the general population – a meta-analysis of 31 studies. BMC Psychiatry 2014, 14:136http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-244X/14/136

Pam Maras, PhD, post-doctoral. University of Michigan.

James Lim, PhD. University of California-Irvine.

Lee Gilman. Kent State University.

Scaini, S., Belotti, R., Ogliari, A. Genetic and environmental contributions to social anxiety across different ages: a meta-analytic approach to twin data. J Anxiety Disord 2014 Oct;28(7):650-6. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2014.07.002. Epub
2014 Jul 12.

Grohol, J.M. “Top 25 Psychiatric Medication Prescriptions for 2013”. PsychCentral. http://psychcentral.com/lib/top-25-psychiatric-medication-prescriptions-for-2013/00019543

Anxiety Treatment for Better Tomorrow – Part 2

At the outset, I would like to thank everyone who had gone through my earlier article and posted their valuable comments. …

Fears can be easily overcome but not Phobias – Why?

Fear and Phobia are qualitatively very different problems hence a distinction between them is useful. 1) A fear is a normal …

Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD)

Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is the most common anxiety disorder …